The impasse of competitive intelligence today is not a failure. A special issue for papers at the ICI 2020 Conference


  • Klaus Solberg Söilen



Market Market Intelligence, Business Intelligence, Competitive Intelligence, Information Systems, Geo-Economics


seven military classics (Jiang Ziya, the methods of theSima, Sun Tzu, Wu Qi, Wei Liaozi, the three strategies of Huang Shigong and the Questions and Repliesbetween Tang Taizong and Li Weigong). The entities studied then were nation states. Later, corporationsoften became just as powerful as states and their leaders demanded similar strategic thinking. Many ofthe ideas came initially from geopolitics as developed in the 19th century, and later with the spread ofmultinational companies at the end of the 20th century, with geoeconomics.What is unique for intelligence studies is the focus on information— not primarily geography ornatural resources— as a source for competitive advantage. Ideas of strategy and information developedinto social intelligence with Stevan Dedijer in the 1960s and became the title of a course he gave at theUniversity of Lund in the 1970s. In the US this direction came to be known as business intelligence. At afast pace we then saw the introduction of corporate intelligence, strategic intelligence and competitiveintelligence. Inspired by the writings of Mikael Porter on strategy, as related to the notion of competitiveadvantage the field of competitive intelligence, a considerable body of articles and books were written inthe 1980s and 1990s. This was primarily in the US, but interest spread to Europe and other parts of theworld, much due to the advocacy of the Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP). In Francethere was a parallel development with “intelligence économique”, “Veille” and “Guerre économique”, inGermany with “Wettbewerbserkundung” and in Sweden with “omvärldsanalys,” just to give someexamples.On the technological side, things were changing even faster, not only with computers but alsosoftware. Oracle corporation landed a big contract with the CIA and showed how data analysis could bedone efficiently. From then on, the software side of the development gained most of the interest fromcompanies. Business intelligence was sometimes treated as enterprise resource planning (ERP), customerrelations management (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM). Competitive intelligence wasassociated primarily with the management side of things as we entered the new millennium. Marketintelligence became a more popular term during the first decade, knowledge management developed intoits own field, financial intelligence became a specialty linked to the detection of fraud and crime primarilyin banks, and during the last decade we have seen a renewed interest for planning, in the form of futurestudies, or futurology and foresight, but also environmental scanning. With the development of Big Data,data mining and artificial intelligence there is now a strong interest in collective intelligence, which isabout how to make better decisions together. Collective intelligence and foresight were the main topics ofthe ICI 2020 conference. All articles published in this issue are from presentations at that conference.The common denominator for the theoretical development described above is the Information Age,which is about one’s ability to analyze large amounts of data with the help of computers. What is drivingthe development is first of all technical innovations in computer science (both hardware and software),while the management side is more concerned with questions about implementation and use.Management disciplines that did not follow up on new technical developments but defined themselvesseparately or independently from these transformations have become irrelevant.Survival as a discipline is all about being relevant. It’s the journey of all theory, and of all sciencesto go from “funeral to funeral” to borrow an often-used phrase: ideas are developed and tested againstreality. Adjustments are made and new ideas developed based on the critic. It’s the way we createknowledge and achieve progress. It’s never a straight line but can be seen as a large number of trials andsolutions to problems that change in shape, a process that never promises to be done, but is ever-changing,Journal of Intelligence Studies in BusinessVol. 10, No 2 (2020) p. 4-5Open Access: Freely available at: like the human evolution we are a part of. This is also the development of the discipline ofintelligence studies and on a more basic level of market research, which is about how to gatherinformation and data, to gain a competitive advantage.Today intelligence studies and technology live in a true symbiosis, just like the disciplines ofmarketing and digital marketing. This means that it is no longer meaningful to study managementpractices alone while ignoring developments in hardware and software. The competitive intelligence (CI)field is one such discipline to the extent that we can say that CI now is a chapter in the history ofmanagement thought, dated to around 1980-2010, equivalent to a generation. It is not so that it willdisappear, but more likely phased out. Some of the methods developed under its direction will continueto be used in other discipline. Most of the ideas labeled as CI were never exclusive to CI in the first place,but borrowed from other disciplines. They were also copied in other disciplines, which is common practicein all management disciplines. Looking at everything that has been done under the CI label the legacy ofCI is considerable.New directions will appear that better fit current business practices. Many of these will seem similarin content to previous contributions, but there will also be elements that are new. To be sure newsuggestions are not mere buzzwords we have to ask critical questions like: how is this discipline definedand how is it different from existing disciplines? It is the meaning that should interest us, not the labelswe put on them. Unlike consultants, academics and researchers have a real obligation to bring clarityand order in the myriad ideas.The articles in this issue are no exception. They are on collective intelligence, decision making, BigData, knowledge management and above all about the software used to facilitate these processes. Thefirst article by Teubert is entitled “Thinking methods as a lever to develop collective intelligence”. Itpresents a methodology and framework for the use of thinking methods as a lever to develop collectiveintelligence.The article by Calof and Sewdass is entitled “On the relationship between competitive intelligenceand innovation”. The authors found that of the 95 competitive intelligence measures used in the study59% were significantly correlated with the study’s measure of innovation.The third article is entitled “Atman: Intelligent information gap detection for learning organizations:First steps toward computational collective intelligence for decision making” and is written by Grèzes,Bonazzi, and Cimmino. The research project shows how companies can constantly adapt to theirenvironment, how they can integrate a learning process in relation to what is happening and become a"learning company".The next article by Calof and Viviers entitled “Big data analytics and international market selection:An exploratory study” develops a multi-phase, big-data analytics model for how companies can performinternational market selection.The last article by Vegas Fernandez entitled “Intelligent information extraction from scholarlydocument databases” presents a method that takes advantage of free desktop tools that are commonplaceto perform systematic literature review, to retrieve, filter, and organize results, and to extract informationto transform it into knowledge. The conceptual basis is a semantics-oriented concept definition and arelative importance index to measure concept relevance in the literature studied.As always, we would above all like to thank the authors for their contributions to this issue of JISIB.Thanks to Dr. Allison Perrigo for reviewing English grammar and helping with layout design for allarticles.Have a safe summer!On behalf of the Editorial Board,


Søilen, K.S. (2019) How managers stay informed about the surrounding world. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business. 9 (1) 28-35.

Lashgari, M., Sutton-Brady, C., Solberg Søilen, K., & Ulfvengren, P. (2018). Adoption strategies of social media in B2B firms: a multiple case study approach. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 33(5), 730-743.

Tontini, G., & Söilen, K. S. (2017). Nonlinear antecedents of customer satisfaction and loyalty in third-party logistics services (3PL). Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, (just-accepted),

Søilen, K. S. (2017). Why care about competitive intelligence and market intelligence? The case of Ericsson and the Swedish Cellulose Company. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 7(2).

Solberg Søilen, K. (2013). Exhibit Marketing & Trade Show Intelligence - Successful Boothmanship and Booth Design. Springer Verlag, Berlin

Solberg Søilen, K. (2012). Geoeconomics. Ventus Publishing ApS/Bookboon, London (50 000+ downloads per year)

Jenster, P., Solberg Søilen, K. (2009). Market Intelligence: Building Strategic Insight. Copenhagen Business School Press, Denmark

Solberg Søilen, K. and Huber, S. (2006). 20 svenska studier för små och medelstora företag – pedagogik och vetenskaplig metod. Studentlitteratur, Lund

Solberg Søilen, K. (2005). Introduction to Public and Private Intelligence. Studentlitteratur, Lund

Solberg Søilen, K. (2005). En liten bok i Logikk. Hvordan lære å tenke. GRIN Humanities, Norderstedt, Germany

Solberg Søilen, K. (2005). Wirtschaftsspionage in Verhandlungen aus Informationsökonomischer Perspektive - Eine Interdisziplinäre Analyse. Dissertation. Faculty of Economics/Wirtschaftswissenshaftlichen Fakultät Universität Leipzig, Germany

Söilen, K. S. (2017). Why the social sciences should be based in evolutionary theory: the example of geoeconomics and intelligence studies. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 7(1).

Solberg Søilen, K. (2016). Economic and industrial espionage at the start of the 21st century–Status quaestionis. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 6(3).

Solberg Søilen, K. (2016). Users’ perceptions of Data as a Service (DaaS). Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 6(2), 43-51.

Solberg Søilen, K. (2016). A research agenda for intelligence studies in business. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 6(1), 21-36.

Gedda, David, Nilsson, Billy, Såthén, Zebastian and Solberg Søilen, Klaus (2016). Crowdfunding: Finding the optimal platform for funders and entrepreneurs. Technology Innovation Management Review, 6, 3, pp. 31-40

Solberg Søilen, Klaus (2015). A place for intelligence studies as a scientific discipline. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, Vol. 5, No 3, pp. 34-46.

Oubrich, Mourad, Aziza, Amine, Solberg Søilen, Klaus (2015). The impact of CRM on QoE: An exploratory study from mobile phone industry in Morocco. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, Vol 5, No 2, pp. 22-35.

Drozdz, Sebastian, Dufwa, Marcus, Meconnen, Robiel, Solberg Søilen, Klaus (2015). An assessment of Customer Shared Value in the restaurant industry. Theoretical and Applied Economics, No. 4, 605, pp. 85-98

Granquist, C., Strömberg, F., Solberg Søilen, K. (2015). Games as a marketing channel – the impact of players and spectators. International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 57-65

Vriens, Dirk, Solberg Søilen, Klaus (2014). Disruptive Intelligence - How to gather Information to deal with disruptive innovations. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, Vol. 4, No 3, pp. 63-78

Solberg Søilen, Klaus (2014). A survey of users’ perspectives and preferences as to the value of JISIB – A spot-check. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, Vol. 4, No 2, pp. 61-65

Svensson, B., Frestad Solér, M. Solberg Søilen, K. (2014). Bara segrar bygger inga varumärken, Svensk Idrottsforskning, Nr 3, pp. 14-19

Tontini, G., Söilen, K. S., & Zanchett, R. (2017). Nonlinear antecedents of customer satisfaction and loyalty in third-party logistics services (3PL). Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 29(5), 1116-1135.

Agostino, Alessandro, Solberg Søilen, Klaus, Gerritsen, Bart (2013). Cloud solution in Business Intelligence for SMEs –vendor and customer perspectives, Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business Vol 3, No 3, pp. 5-28

Solberg Søilen, K. (2013). An overview of articles on Competitive Intelligence in JCIM and CIR. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business Vol 3, No 1, pp. 44-58.

Solberg Søilen, K., Jenster, P. (2013). The Relationship between Strategic Planning and Company Performance – A Chinese perspective. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, Vol 3, No 1, pp. 15-30.

Tontini, G., Solberg Søilen, K., Silveira, A. (2013). How interactions of service attributes affect customer satisfaction: A study of the Kano model’s attributes. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Volume 24, Issue 11-12, pages 1253-1271

Solberg Søilen, K., Nerme, P., Stemström, C., Darefelt, N. (2013). Usage of internet banking among different segments – trust and information needs. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, Vol 18, No 2, pp. 2-18

Fri, W., Pehrsson, T., Solberg Søilen, K. (2013). How the phases of cluster development are associated with innovation – the case of China. International Journal of Innovation Science, Vol. 5, Nr. 1, pp. 31-43.

Hansson, L., Wrangmo, A. Solberg Søilen, K. (2013). Optimal ways for companies to use Facebook as a marketing channel. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society. Vol. 11 Iss: 2, pp. 112 – 126.

Solberg Søilen, K., Tontini, G. (2013). Knowledge Management systems and Human Resource Management policies for Innovation benchmarking: a study at ST Ericsson. Internatinal Journal of Innovation Science, Vol 5, No 3, pp. 159-171

Yasmina, A., Solberg Søilen, K., Vriens, D. (2012). Using the SSAV model to evaluate Business Intelligence Software. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, Vol 2, No 1, pp. 29-40.

Solberg Søilen, K. Hasslinger, A. (2012). Factors shaping vendor differentiation in the Business Intelligence software industry. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, Vol 2, No 3, pp. 48-54.

Sabanovic, A., Solberg Søilen, K. (2012). Customers’ Expectations and Needs in the Business Intelligence Software Market. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, Vol 2, No 1, pp. 5-20.

Solberg Søilen, K. (2012). The Fallacy of the Service Economy. European Business Review, Vol 24, Iss: 4, pp. 308-319.