Competitive Intelligence Maturity Models: Systematic Review, Unified Model and Implementation Frameworks


  • Luis Madureira NOVA Information Management School
  • Aleš Popovič School of Economics and Business, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Mauro Castelli NOVA Information Management School (NOVA IMS), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Campolide, 1070-312 Lisboa, Portugal; School of Economics and Business, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia



Maturity Model, Maturity Levels, Framework, CI Function, CI System, Implementation Roadmap, CI Practice, Organizational Performance


Competitive Intelligence (CI) is vital for sustaining the performance of organisations in an increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) world. However, the impact of CI on performance is proportional to its maturity level. The article aims to review and integrate the existing literature on Competitive Intelligence Maturity Models (CIMMs) to provide a go-to framework for setting up, assessing, and developing CI. The CIMMs were sourced from scholarly databases, registers, the social web, and using backwards and forward searches. All the CIMMs respecting the characterisation criteria were included in the study. A scientific and empirically validated definition of CI guided the integration and synthesis of the fourteen selected CIMMs. The primary outcome is a proposed unified CIMM (UCIMM) covering all the CI dimensions and aspects in tandem with the respective implementation guidance frameworks. The proposed UCIMM and implementation frameworks effectuate the guidance needed to set up, assess, and develop the CI practice and theory and, ultimately, the performance of organisations.

Author Biographies

Luis Madureira, NOVA Information Management School

Luis is a PhD Researcher in Information Management - Specialization in Information and Decision Systems Master of Competitive Intelligence (CI) CIP-II accredited Advanced Competitive Intelligence Professional. Created S(ocial) M(arket) INT(elligence), a real-time integrative approach to CI.BSc in Business Economics specialized in Marketing from NOVA School of Business & Economics, postgraduate in eCommerce, Digital Marketing & IT from CATOLICA Lisbon SBE.Holds a unique set of skills, balancing empirical rigour with creative thinking derived from 2 decades of proficient, resilient leadership in senior roles in Developed & Emerging Markets (US, UK, ES, PT, EU, AO).Executive proficiency in General Management, Consultancy, Advisory, Business, Innovation & Commercial (Marketing, Trade Marketing and Sales) developed in some of the world's most admired companies - Ogilvy, Heineken, United Coffee, Red Bull, PepsiCo, Coca-Cola and Diageo - and start-up and private companies - uberbrands, Wayfield, Inspirit Music and Approved.A proactive hands-on business optimiser across all Verticals (Retail, Wholesale, Impulse & eCommerce strategy) while a Visionary, creative entrepreneur, achiever of quality results within realistic time frames ensuring the highest standards. Generates trust and positive feelings at both personal and professional level.International Lecturer and Teacher of CI, Strategy, Marketing & Innovation in University Masters. BUSINESS STRATEGY & INTELLIGENCEStrategy definition including Business Plans, Marketing, SalesCI, Knowledge Sharing, Analytics, PlanningEXECUTION Sales Strategy Development, Account Management, Internationalization, Business Development, Change ManagementSALES & MARKETINGInternational Brands, Positioning, Brand Building, Product Communication, Branding, Sensory Marketing, Strategic Marketing, Word of Mouth, Innovation, NPD, Digital, Social MediaTRADERoute to Market; Market, Channel and Customer StrategyPEOPLEMentoring, CoachingEDUCATIONTeaching, Lecturing, Training

Aleš Popovič, School of Economics and Business, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Aleš Popovič is a Full Professor of Information Systems at NEOMA Business School, France and a visiting professor at NOVA IMS, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal. His research interests include understanding IS value, success, and related business process change, both within and between organizations. He has published his research in a variety of academic journals, such as Journal of the Association for Information Systems, The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Decision Support Systems, Expert Systems with Applications, Information Systems Frontiers, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, Government Information Quarterly, and Journal of Business Research among others.

Mauro Castelli, NOVA Information Management School (NOVA IMS), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Campolide, 1070-312 Lisboa, Portugal; School of Economics and Business, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Mauro Castelli received the master’s (summa cum laude) and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy, in 2008 and 2012, respectively, both in computer science. He is an Associate Professor with NOVA IMS, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. His current research interests include artificial intelligence (in particular, evolutionary computation and genetic programming) and the application of machine learning techniques to solve complex real-life problems, especially in the business area.


ACI, & Gilad, B. (2022). 2022 CIPTM Survey - A Changing Role Bodes Well (p. 16) [Survey]. Academy of Competitive Intelligence.

Adamala, S., & Cidrin, L. (2011). Key Success Factors in Business Intelligence. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 1(1), 107–127.

Alvares, L. M. A. de R., Itaborahy, A. L. C., & Machado, R. P. M. (2020). Modelo de Maturidade em Inteligência rgani acional: uma visão integrada à gestão da informação, gestão do conhecimento e inteligência competitiva. Informação & Sociedade: Estudos, 30(4), 1–21.

APQC, Hasanali, F., Leavitt, P., & Lemons, D. (2004). Competitive Intelligence: A Guide for Your Journey to Best-Practice Processes. Amer Productivity Center.

Bartes, F. (2014). Defining a Basis for the New Concept of Competitive Intelligence. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 62(6), 1233–1242.

Bennett, N., & Lemoine, J. (2014). What a Difference a Word Makes: Understanding Threats to Performance in a VUCA World. Business Horizons, 57, 311–317.

Breakspear, A. (2013). A New Definition of Intelligence. Intelligence and National Security, 28(5), 678–693.

Brocke, J., Simons, A., Niehaves, B., Niehaves, B., Reimer, K., Plattfaut, R., & Cleven, A. (2009). Reconstructing the Giant: On the Importance of Rigour in Documenting the Literature Search Process. ECIS 2009 Proceedings, 161.

Brody, R. (2008). Issues in Defining Competitive Intelligence: An Exploration. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 36(3), 3–16. IEEE.

Bruin, T. de, Freeze, R., Kulkarni, U., & Rosemann, M. (2005). Understanding the Main Phases of Developing a Maturity Assessment Model. ACIS 2005 Proceedings, 109.

Calof, J. (1998). Increasing your CIQ: the competitive intelligence edge. Economic and Technology Development Journal of Canada, Art 22/98, 103–108.

Calof, J., Sewdass, N., & Arcos, R. (2017). Competitive Intelligence: A 10-year Global Development. Competitive Intelligence Magazine, 20(2), 21–26.

Comai, A., & Prescott, J. E. (2007). Workbook: World-Class Competitive Intelligence Function (E. Ediciones, Ed.; 1st ed.). Emecom Ediciones.

Cooper, H. M. (1988). Organising Knowledge Syntheses: A Taxonomy of Literature Reviews. Knowledge in Society, 1(1), 104–126.

Crayon, & SCIP. (2022). 2022 State of Competitive Intelligence (State of Competitive Intelligence, p. 44) [Survey]. Crayon.

Duncan, R. W., & Weiss, A. (1979). Organisational Learning: Implications for Organisational Design. Research in Organisational Behaviour: An Annual Series of Analytical Essays and Critical Reviews, 1, 75–123.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Making Fast Strategic Decisions in High-Velocity Environments. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 543–576.

Fiedler, Fred. E. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 149–190). Elsevier.

Fraser, P., Moultrie, J., & Gregory, M. (2002). The Use of Maturity Models/Grids as a Tool in Assessing Product Development Capability. 2022 IEEE International Engineering Management Conference, 18-20 August, 1, 244–249 vol.1.

Harkleroad, D. (1998). Ostriches and Eagles II. Competitive Intelligence Review, 9(1), 13–19.<13::AID-CIR4>3.0.CO;2-S

Hedin, H. (2005). Competitive Intelligence in Large Companies – Global Study (White Paper No. 4; Global Study, pp. 1–38). Global Intelligence Alliance.

Hedin, H., Hirvensalo, I., & Vaarnas, M. (2014). The Handbook of Market Intelligence: Understand, Compete and Grow in Global Markets (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Heppes, D., & Du Toit, A. S. (2009). Level of Maturity of the Competitive Intelligence Function: Case Study of a Retail Bank in South Africa. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 61(1), 48–66.

Herring, J. (2008). Defining Competitive Intelligence Needs: The Role of Key Intelligence Topics. In Starting a Competitive Intelligence Function: A SCIP Best Practices Guide (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 33–42). Competitive Intelligence Foundation.

Herring, J. P., & Leavitt, J. A. (2011). The Roadmap to a World-Class Competitive Intelligence Program. Competitive Intelligence Magazine, 14(1), 9–28.

ISACA. (2022). CMMI Levels of Capability and Performance.

Kahaner, L. (1997). Competitive Intelligence: How to Gather, Analyse, and Use Information to Move Your Business to the Top (1st ed.). Simon & Schuster - Touchstone.

Klue, & SCIP. (2021). The 2021 Competitive Enablement Report - What do Stakeholders Really Think About Your Competitive Programs (p. 41) [Survey]. Klue + SCIP.

Lahrmann, G., & Marx, F. (2010). Systematisation of Maturity Model Extensions. In R. Winter, J. L. Zhao, & S. Aier (Eds.), DESRIST 2010 (Vol. 6105, pp. 522–525). Springer.

Laney, D. (2001). 3D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity, and Variety. META Group Research Note, 6(70), 1–4.

Madureira, L., Popovic, A., & Castelli, M. (2021a). Competitive intelligence: a unified view and modular definition. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 173(December 121086), 1–17.

Madureira, L., Popovic, A., & Castelli, M. (2021b). Competitive intelligence empirical construct validation using expert in-depth interviews study. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Technology Management, Operations and Decisions, 1–6.

Marceau, S., & Sawka, K. (1999). Developing a orld‐Class CI Program in Telecoms. Competitive Intelligence Review, 10(4), 30–40.<30::AID-CIR6>3.0.CO;2-H

Marcial, E. C. (2018). Initial Proposal of a General Theory of Competitive Intelligence [Proposta Inicial e ma Teoria eral a Inteligência Competitiva]. Ciência Da Informação, 45(3), 59–75.

M-Brain, Drieman, J., & Makinen, S. (2019). Global Intelligence Survey 2019 (p. 32) [Survey & White Paper]. M-Brain.

Nasri, W., & Zarai, M. (2013). Key Success Factors for Developing Competitive Intelligence in Organisation. American Journal of Business and Management, 2(3), 239–244.

Neuendorf, K. A. (2019). Content Analysis and Thematic Analysis. In P. Brough (Ed.), Advanced Research Methods for Applied Psychology: Design, Analysis and Reporting (1st ed., pp. 211–223). Routledge.

Oubrich, M., Hakmaoui, A., Bierwolf, R., & Haddani, M. (2018). Development of a Competitive Intelligence Maturity Model: Insights from Moroccan Companies. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 8(1), 25–36.

Oxford English Dictionary. (2022a). Maturity. In Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford Languages and Google). Oxford University Press.

Oxford English Dictionary. (2022b). Model. In Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford Languages and Google). Oxford University Press.

Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J. M., Akl, E. A., Brennan, S. E., Chou, R., Glanville, J., rimshaw, J. M., róbjartsson, ., alu, M. M., Li, T., Loder, E. W., Mayo-Wilson, E., Mc onald, ., … Moher, . (2021). The PRISMA 2020 Statement: An Updated Guideline for Reporting Systematic Reviews. Systematic Reviews, 10(1), 89.

Page, M. J., Moher, D., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J. M., Akl, E. A., Brennan, S. E., Chou, ., lanville, J., rimshaw, J. M., róbjartsson, A., Lalu, M. M., Li, T., Loder, E. W., Mayo- ilson, E., Mc onald, ., … Mc en ie, J. E. (2021). PRISMA 2020 Explanation and Elaboration: Updated Guidance and Exemplars for Reporting Systematic Reviews. BMJ, 372(160), 1–36.

Pellissier, R., & Nenzhelele, T. E. (2013). Towards a Universal Definition of Competitive Intelligence. South African Journal of Information Management, 15(2), 1–7.

Porter, M. E. (2008). The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 86(1), 25–40.

Prescott, J. E. (1999). The Evolution of Competitive Intelligence - Designing a Process for Action. Proposal Management (Journal of the Association of Proposal Management Professionals), Spring, 37–52.

Rumelt, R. P. (2012). Good Strategy/Bad Strategy: The Difference and Why It Matters (799615; 1st ed.). Crown Business.

Rumelt, R. P. (2022, June 23). Build a Strategy that Addresses Your Gnarliest Challenges. Harvard Business Review.

Senge, P. M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of The Learning Organisation (Revised and Updated). Doubleday.

Singh, A., Fuld, L., & Beurgschens, A. (2008). A Roadmap for Ensuring Success. In Starting a Competitive Intelligence Function (pp. 263–276). Competitive Intelligence Foundation;

Taleb, N. N. (2007). The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (Vol. 2). Random House, Inc.

Vedder, R. G., & Guynes, C. S. (2001). A Study of Competitive Intelligence Practices in Organisations. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 41(2), 36–39.

Vroom, V. H., & Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making (1st ed.). University of Pittsburgh Press.

Webster, J., & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analysing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review. MIS Quarterly, 26(2.3), xiii–xxiii.

West, C. (2001). Competitive Intelligence (1st ed.). Springer.

Wilkinson, A., & Kupers, R. (2013). Living in the Futures - How Scenario Planning Changed Corporate Strategy. Harvard Business Review, May, 2–11.

Yap, C. S., Cheng, B. L., Mohamad Hussain, N., & Ahmad, R. (2018). Innovativeness, Market Intelligence Practices, and Firm Performance of Small- and Medium-Sized Tour Operators. Tourism & Hospitality Research, 18(2), 143–151.

Yap, C. S., & Rashid, M. Z. A. (2011). Competitive Intelligence Practices and Firm Performance. Libri: International Journal of Libraries & Information Services, 61(3), 175–189.

Yap, C. S., Rashid, M. Z. A., & Sapuan, D. A. (2013). Strategic Uncertainty and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Competitive Intelligence Practices. Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, 12(04), 1350028-1–14.