Competitive Intelligence and Knowledge Creation - Outward insights from an empirical survey
Keywords:Competitive Intelligence, Knowledge creation, Knowledge management
AbstractThe 21st century is characterized by many transformations which have had an impact on the growth of companies, such as aggressive competition, layoff plans, terrorist attacks and rising oil prices. It is of importance for a company to develop a protection against future impediments. This can be done by creating knowledge through a competitive intelligence process, which is the main focus of this article. With different theories about knowledge creation and competitive intelligence at hand, a qualitative empirical study was developed. The article presents how a company’s strategic intent, mission and strategic objectives can act as a guide for the competitive intelligence process, in order to gain the information necessary to find opportunities and eliminate threats.
Achard, P, Bernat, J.-P. 1998. L’intelligence économique: Mode d’Emploi. ADBS Editions.
Argyris, C, Schôn, D. 1978. Organizational learning: a theory of action perspective. Adison Wesley.
Barney, J, 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Journal of Management, n°17.
Barney, J.B, Wright, M, Ketchen, D.J. 2001. The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after 1991. Journal of Management 27 (6).
Calof, J. 2001. Competitive intelligence and the small firm—Requirements and barriers. Available online at URL:
Campbell, A, Yeung, S. 1991a. Creating a sense of mission, Long Range Planning, Vol 24, n°2.
Charue, F. 1992. Les entreprises peuvent elles apprendre, Cahiers du CRG, n°9, Paris.
Cohen, W. Levinthal, D. 1994. Fortune favors the prepared firm, Management Science, Vol 40, n°2.
Crane, A. 2005. In the company of spies: when competitive intelligence gathering becomes industrial espionage, Business Horizons, Vol 48 (3).
du Toit, A.S.A. 2003. Competitive intelligence in the knowledge economy: what is in it for South African manufacturing enterprises? International Journal of Information Management, Volume 23, Issue 2, April.
Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. Building theories from case study research, Academy of Management Review, vol 14, n°4.
Fuld, L. 2000. Intelligence software: reality or still virtual reality? Fuld et co, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Available online at URL: http://www.fuld.com
Hamel, G. 1996. Strategy as revolution, Harvard Business Review, Vol 74.
Hamel, G. Prahalad, C.K. 1989. Strategic intent, Harvard Business Review, n°3.
Hannan, M.T, Freeman, J. 1989. Organizational ecology. Harvard University Press
Havenga, J. Botha, D. 2003. Developing competitive intelligence in the knowledge based organization. Available online at URL: http://www.saoug.org.za/archive/2003/0312a.pdf
Huber, G.P. 1991. Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literature, Organization Science, 2, 1.
Ingham, M. 1994. L’apprentissage organisationnel dans les coopérations, Revue française de gestion, n° 97, janvier-février.
Levet, J. L. 2001. Intelligence économique: mode de pensée, mode d’action, Economica, Paris.
Lipton, M. 1996. Demystifying the development of an organizational vision, Sloan Management Review, Summer.
Nonaka, I. 1994. A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation, Organization Science, Vol 5.
Nonaka, I, Konno, N. 1998. "The Concept of 'Ba': Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation." California Management Review 40(3).
Nonaka, I, Takeuchi, H. 1994. The knowledge creating company. Oxford University Press.
Nonaka, I, Takeuchi, H. 1995. The knowledge creating company. How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. NY: Oxford University Press.
Nonaka, I, Takeuchi, H. (Eds). 1997. La connaissance créatrice. La dynamique de l’entreprise apprenante. De Boeck Université, Bruxelles.
Oubrich, M. 2005. La création des connaissances dans un processus d’intelligence économique, PhD dissertation, Aix Marseille University, France.
Polanyi, M. 1966. The tacit dimension. Garden City, NY: Doubleday
Porter, M.E. 1990. The competitive advantage of nations. New York, The Free Press.
Prescott, J.E. 1999. The Evolution of Competitive Intelligence: Designing a process for action, APMP Spring. Available online at URL: http://www.apmp.org/fv-154.aspx
Rouach, D, Santi, P. 2001. Competitive Intelligence Adds Value: Five Intelligence Attitudes, European Management Journal Vol. 19, No. 5, October.
Rittenburg, et al. 2006. An ethical decision-making framework for competitor intelligence gathering, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 70. Available online at URL:
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).