Competitive Intelligence and Knowledge Creation - Outward insights from an empirical survey

Mourad Oubrich


The 21st century is characterized by many transformations which have had an impact on the  growth of companies, such as aggressive competition, layoff plans, terrorist attacks and rising oil prices.  It is of importance for a company to develop a protection against future impediments. This can be done by creating knowledge through a competitive intelligence process, which is the main focus of this article. With different theories about knowledge creation and competitive intelligence at hand, a qualitative empirical study was developed. The article presents how a company’s strategic intent, mission and strategic objectives can act as a guide for the competitive intelligence process, in order to gain the information necessary to find opportunities and eliminate threats.


Competitive Intelligence, Knowledge creation, Knowledge management

Full Text:



Achard, P, Bernat, J.-P. 1998. L’intelligence économique: Mode d’Emploi. ADBS Editions.

Argyris, C, Schôn, D. 1978. Organizational learning: a theory of action perspective. Adison Wesley.

Barney, J, 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Journal of Management, n°17.

Barney, J.B, Wright, M, Ketchen, D.J. 2001. The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after 1991. Journal of Management 27 (6).

Calof, J. 2001. Competitive intelligence and the small firm—Requirements and barriers. Available online at URL:

Campbell, A, Yeung, S. 1991a. Creating a sense of mission, Long Range Planning, Vol 24, n°2.

Charue, F. 1992. Les entreprises peuvent elles apprendre, Cahiers du CRG, n°9, Paris.

Cohen, W. Levinthal, D. 1994. Fortune favors the prepared firm, Management Science, Vol 40, n°2.

Crane, A. 2005. In the company of spies: when competitive intelligence gathering becomes industrial espionage, Business Horizons, Vol 48 (3).

du Toit, A.S.A. 2003. Competitive intelligence in the knowledge economy: what is in it for South African manufacturing enterprises? International Journal of Information Management, Volume 23, Issue 2, April.

Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. Building theories from case study research, Academy of Management Review, vol 14, n°4.

Fuld, L. 2000. Intelligence software: reality or still virtual reality? Fuld et co, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Available online at URL:

Hamel, G. 1996. Strategy as revolution, Harvard Business Review, Vol 74.

Hamel, G. Prahalad, C.K. 1989. Strategic intent, Harvard Business Review, n°3.

Hannan, M.T, Freeman, J. 1989. Organizational ecology. Harvard University Press

Havenga, J. Botha, D. 2003. Developing competitive intelligence in the knowledge based organization. Available online at URL:

Huber, G.P. 1991. Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literature, Organization Science, 2, 1.

Ingham, M. 1994. L’apprentissage organisationnel dans les coopérations, Revue française de gestion, n° 97, janvier-février.

Levet, J. L. 2001. Intelligence économique: mode de pensée, mode d’action, Economica, Paris.

Lipton, M. 1996. Demystifying the development of an organizational vision, Sloan Management Review, Summer.

Nonaka, I. 1994. A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation, Organization Science, Vol 5.

Nonaka, I, Konno, N. 1998. "The Concept of 'Ba': Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation." California Management Review 40(3).

Nonaka, I, Takeuchi, H. 1994. The knowledge creating company. Oxford University Press.

Nonaka, I, Takeuchi, H. 1995. The knowledge creating company. How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. NY: Oxford University Press.

Nonaka, I, Takeuchi, H. (Eds). 1997. La connaissance créatrice. La dynamique de l’entreprise apprenante. De Boeck Université, Bruxelles.

Oubrich, M. 2005. La création des connaissances dans un processus d’intelligence économique, PhD dissertation, Aix Marseille University, France.

Polanyi, M. 1966. The tacit dimension. Garden City, NY: Doubleday

Porter, M.E. 1990. The competitive advantage of nations. New York, The Free Press.

Prescott, J.E. 1999. The Evolution of Competitive Intelligence: Designing a process for action, APMP Spring. Available online at URL:

Rouach, D, Santi, P. 2001. Competitive Intelligence Adds Value: Five Intelligence Attitudes, European Management Journal Vol. 19, No. 5, October.

Rittenburg, et al. 2006. An ethical decision-making framework for competitor intelligence gathering, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 70. Available online at URL:


  • There are currently no refbacks.

JISIB is indexed by ESCI, SCOPUS, EBSCO, DOAJ, Google Scholar, EconBib and SCImago, and is ranked as a Level 1 publication by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. JISIB has applied for admittance to Web of Science.